Saturday 9 April 2016

Verb System Part One.

       Version 2.2
 [Page updated to use new definite article and third person pronouns]
        As might be expected from a conlang, the verbs in Diinlang are regular. Some conlangs use totally uninflected verbs, others are highly inflected. Diinlang generally uses a bare infinitive but also uses regularly derived perfect and progressive forms.
        A word used as a verb in Diinlang may have three possible forms. These are the bare infinitive form, the continuous/progressive form and the perfect form. The two latter forms are regularly constructed by the addition of the prefixes “is-” and “dun-”. This replaces the older version which used bi-” and “av-”. Some later pages may still use these prefixes. The use of a prefix allows these forms to be used as nouns or adjectives/adverbs when required. This gives us greater potential for information and flexibility. Consider the English phrases:

        The open door.

        The opened door.

        The opening door.

        For convenience the continuous/progressive form in English is hereafter called the “-ing form”.
        Verb tense is indicated with the markers “
gon” and “pre
” for future or past.
        If a full infinitive is needed “du” prefixes the verb. Therefore “to go” is “
du go
        The Diinlang verbs for “to be”, “to have” and “to do” are “
bi”, “av” and “du
        This section details how the verb forms are constructed. How they are actually used will probably evolve over time. For example, the simple present is seldom used for dynamic verbs in English, the continuous form being used instead. In Dutch, the simple present sees more use and is often used in meanings that might not be regarded as present tense in other languages.

Simple Present, Past and Future.
        These are formed with the bare infinitive and a tense marker if necessary. When a verb in future or past tense is being used as a copula the infinitive may be dropped if the meaning remains clear.

Mi duI do
Zo duHe does
Zo pre du He did
Zo gon duHe will do/ He is going to do.
Za zou duShe would do

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
        Transitivity is flexible. If an object is added after an intransitive verb, the verb becomes transitive. This may alter the meaning of the verb so that it has a meaning similar to “causes (the object) to …”

        Compare the English “"I burn". with “"I burn it".”

Progressive/Continuous Aspect.
        The progressive/continuous aspect is formed using the “is-” prefix. In English this verb aspect is accompanied by some form of the auxiliary/copular verb “to be”. In Diinlang the addition of the auxiliary is not necessary.

Mi isduI am doing
Zo isduHe is doing
Zo pre isduHe was doing
Zo gon isduHe will be doing/ He is going to be doing.
Za zou isduShe would be doing

Perfect Aspect.
        The perfect aspect is formed using the “av-
” prefix. (This has been updated to "dun") In English this verb aspect is accompanied by some form of the auxiliary verb “to have”. In Diinlang the addition of the auxiliary is not necessary. Perfect aspect in regular English verbs takes an –ed ending. Many irregular verbs take –en as an ending (eaten, riden, beaten etc).

Mi dunduI have done
Zo dunduHe has done
Zo pre dunduHe had done
Zo gon dundu He will have done/ He going to have done.
Za zou dunduShe would have done

Perfect Progressive.
        The perfect and progressive (continuous) aspects can be combined, usually in referring to the completed portion of a continuing action or temporary state: "“I have been doing…” it" is formed in Diinlang by combination of the verb “to have” (“av”) before a continuous form of the main verb.

Mi av isduI have been doing
Zo av isduHe has been doing
Zo pre av isduHe had been doing
Zo gon av isduHe will have been doing/ He going to have been doing
Za zou av isduShe would have been doing.

Passive Voice.
        To form the passive voice (where the subject denotes the undergoer, or patient, of the action) the auxiliary verb “ge” is used, often with the perfect form. In English passive voice is formed either with the verb “"to be"” or "“to get"” and a past participle verb form. “"get”" is used in the meaning of “becoming” or “becomes”. (Remember perfect tense uses "“have”" with the past participle form in English) If “to be” can be replaced with “"to get"” or “"to become"” without a loss of meaning the sentence is passive voice and requires the “ge
” verb in Diinlang. Note that the auxillary can be modified for tense and aspect. Some perfect construction clauses are inherently passive. "It ge du" and "It dundu" have the same meaning.
        In many languages the passive voice is formed by a combination of the perfect form of the verb used with the verb for “"to be”". This construction can also be used in Diinlang. Often in Diinlang there will be more than one correct way to do something!

TenseSubjectAuxiliaryPast Participle/ Infinitive.
Present passiveIt

is/ gets/becomes


Past passiveIt

were/ got/ became

pre ge

Future passiveIt

will be/ get/ become

gon ge

Present perfect passiveIt

has been/ has got/ has become


Past perfect passiveIt

had been/ had got/ had became

pre dunge

Future perfect passiveIt

will have been/ will have got/ will have became

gon dunge

Present progressive passive It

is being/ is getting/ is becoming


Past progressive passiveIt

was being/ was getting/ was becoming

pre isge


        Alternately, the prefixes is- and dun- might be added to the main verb, so "It was being done" would be written as "it pre ge isdu", literally "it was get doing".

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