There have been a number of attempts to create an auxlang based on or derived from Latin. International Scientific Vocabulary (ISV) uses many Latin words. The Romance languages have a considerable lexicon of words evolved from Latin. Many non-Romance languages have assimilated Romance or Latin words.
In a previous post I fielded some embryonic ideas of conventions for deriving Diinlang words from Mandarin. Protocols for creating Diinlang words from Latin can probably be more definite.
Several times on this blog I have referred to Novial, which is derived from Latin. Rather than using Novial I am going to start with another Latin-derived auxlang, “Latino Sine Flexione” (LFS), developed by Guiseppe Peano.
Peano selected his noun forms from the ablative case of Latin words, using the genitive form as a guide.
- First declension (-a stem) nouns took an “-a” ending.
- Second declension (-o and -r stem) nouns took an “-o” ending.
- Third declension (-i and consonant stem) nouns took an “-e” ending.
- Forth declension (-u stem) nouns took an “-u” ending.
- Fifth declension (-e stem) nouns took an “-e” ending.
Obviously both third and fifth declension nouns produce words with “-e” endings. This is only a problem if homophones are created. If this is a problem for Diinlang then fifth declension derived nouns can be given an “-em” ending, derived from the accusative form. The majority of first declension nouns in Latin are feminine so the above system will give us many Diinlang words ending in “-a” that have genuine female context. For example, “filia” for daughter. The majority of second declension words are masculine or neuter, so we get many “-o” ending words with a male context. For example, “filio” for son. Some fine tuning will be needed. The nouns for “farmer” and “sailor” are first declension in Latin and end in “-a”. The Diinlang words will be more obviously neuter and probably agent nouns. The word for “dog” may be more recognizable as “kanis” rather than “cane”. Some words will need to be changed to suit Diinlang phonetics.
Peano converted verbs into LFS by taking the infinitive (present?) form in Latin and dropping the “-re” from the end. This generally gives a verb that ends in a vowel.
This article suggests an inflection-free Latin based on infinitive verbs and accusative nouns. An interesting idea, but the objective here is to create Diinlang words that may be comprehendible to users familiar with some Latin.
Peano’s system for converting adjectives was:
- Adjectives with a neuter nominative form ending in “-e” used that form in LFS.
- Adjectives with a neuter nominative form ending in “-um” replaced the “-um” with “-o”.
- All other adjectives used their ablative case, based on the genitive form, as for nouns (above).
I am less certain about using Peano’s system for converting adjectives. Many conlangs attempt to mark nouns, verbs and modifiers, usually using different endings. In some natural languages, such as English, the same word form can serve as a noun, verb, modifier or other part of speech. The word is not distinguished by its ending, but by its context and position relative to other words. A verb becomes a noun simply by adding a determiner or article. A noun becomes a verb by using it as one. Many adjectives and adverbs are simply nouns used for description. This is the system that I would prefer for Diinlang. This would work well with the system of using determiners to mark the plurality of nouns.
The above system gives use “matre” for “mother”, but obviously, this is a feminine word, so Diinlang will use “matra”.
- De matra = the mother
- Dez matra = the mothers
- Tri matra = three mothers
- Za matra zo = she mothers him
- De ave matra = the mother bird
Peano’s system does not create nouns with “-i” endings. The majority of the verbs created will not end in “-i” either. This suggests that many Diinlang adjectives and adverbs can be created from these nouns and verbs using the suffixes suggested here. Hence:
- matrahili (matrahli) = motherly (adverb)
- matrahing/ matrahin = mothering
- matrahi = mother-ry
Some details will need further work, but this looks like a sound foundation.