[Page updated to use new definite article and third person pronouns]
As might be expected from a conlang, the verbs in Diinlang are regular. Some conlangs use totally uninflected verbs, others are highly inflected. Diinlang generally uses a bare infinitive but also uses regularly derived perfect and progressive forms.
A word used as a verb in Diinlang may have three possible forms. These are the bare infinitive form, the continuous/progressive form and the perfect form. The two latter forms are regularly constructed by the addition of the prefixes is- and dun-. This replaces the older version which used bi- and av-. Some later pages may still use these prefixes. The use of a prefix allows these forms to be used as nouns or adjectives/adverbs when required. This gives us greater potential for information and flexibility. Consider the English phrases:
The open door.
The opened door.
The opening door.
For convenience the continuous/progressive form in English is hereafter called the -ing form.
Verb tense is indicated with the markers gon and pre for future or past.
If a full infinitive is needed du prefixes the verb. Therefore to go is du go.
The Diinlang verbs for to be, to have and to do are bi, av and du.
This section details how the verb forms are constructed. How they are actually used will probably evolve over time. For example, the simple present is seldom used for dynamic verbs in English, the continuous form being used instead. In Dutch, the simple present sees more use and is often used in meanings that might not be regarded as present tense in other languages.
Simple Present, Past and Future.
These are formed with the bare infinitive and a tense marker if necessary. When a verb in future or past tense is being used as a copula the infinitive may be dropped if the meaning remains clear.
|Mi du||I do|
|Zo du||He does|
|Zo pre du||He did|
|Zo gon du||He will do/ He is going to do.|
|Za zou du||She would do|
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Transitivity is flexible. If an object is added after an intransitive verb, the verb becomes transitive. This may alter the meaning of the verb so that it has a meaning similar to causes (the object) to
Compare the English "I burn". with "I burn it".
The progressive/continuous aspect is formed using the is- prefix. In English this verb aspect is accompanied by some form of the auxiliary/copular verb to be. In Diinlang the addition of the auxiliary is not necessary.
|Mi isdu||I am doing|
|Zo isdu||He is doing|
|Zo pre isdu||He was doing|
|Zo gon isdu||He will be doing/ He is going to be doing.|
|Za zou isdu||She would be doing|
The perfect aspect is formed using the av- prefix. (This has been updated to "dun") In English this verb aspect is accompanied by some form of the auxiliary verb to have. In Diinlang the addition of the auxiliary is not necessary. Perfect aspect in regular English verbs takes an ed ending. Many irregular verbs take en as an ending (eaten, riden, beaten etc).
|Mi dundu||I have done|
|Zo dundu||He has done|
|Zo pre dundu||He had done|
|Zo gon dundu||He will have done/ He going to have done.|
|Za zou dundu||She would have done|
The perfect and progressive (continuous) aspects can be combined, usually in referring to the completed portion of a continuing action or temporary state: "I have been doing it" is formed in Diinlang by combination of the verb to have (av) before a continuous form of the main verb.
|Mi av isdu||I have been doing|
|Zo av isdu||He has been doing|
|Zo pre av isdu||He had been doing|
|Zo gon av isdu||He will have been doing/ He going to have been doing|
|Za zou av isdu||She would have been doing.|
To form the passive voice (where the subject denotes the undergoer, or patient, of the action) the auxiliary verb ge is used, often with the perfect form. In English passive voice is formed either with the verb "to be" or "to get" and a past participle verb form. "get" is used in the meaning of becoming or becomes. (Remember perfect tense uses "have" with the past participle form in English) If to be can be replaced with "to get" or "to become" without a loss of meaning the sentence is passive voice and requires the ge verb in Diinlang. Note that the auxillary can be modified for tense and aspect. Some perfect construction clauses are inherently passive. "It ge du" and "It dundu" have the same meaning.
In many languages the passive voice is formed by a combination of the perfect form of the verb used with the verb for "to be". This construction can also be used in Diinlang. Often in Diinlang there will be more than one correct way to do something!
|Tense||Subject||Auxiliary||Past Participle/ Infinitive.|
|Present passive||It |
|is/ gets/becomes |
|Past passive||It |
|were/ got/ became |
|Future passive||It |
|will be/ get/ become |
|Present perfect passive||It |
|has been/ has got/ has become |
|Past perfect passive||It |
|had been/ had got/ had became |
|Future perfect passive||It |
|will have been/ will have got/ will have became |
|Present progressive passive||It |
|is being/ is getting/ is becoming |
|Past progressive passive||It |
|was being/ was getting/ was becoming |
Alternately, the prefixes is- and dun- might be added to the main verb, so "It was being done" would be written as "it pre ge isdu", literally "it was get doing".